Friday, February 24, 2012

Tha Alamo


Originally named Misión San Antonio de Valero, the Alamo served as home to missionaries and their Indian converts for nearly seventy years. Construction began on the present site in 1724. In 1793, Spanish officials secularized San Antonio's five missions and distributed their lands to the remaining Indian residents. These men and women continued to farm the fields, once the mission's but now their own, and participated in the growing community of San Antonio.

In the early 1800s, the Spanish military stationed a cavalry unit at the former mission. The soldiers referred to the old mission as the Alamo (the Spanish word for "cottonwood") in honor of their hometown Alamo de Parras, Coahuila. The post's commander established the first recorded hospital in Texas in the Long Barrack. The Alamo was home to both Revolutionaries and Royalists during Mexico's ten-year struggle for independence. The military — Spanish, Rebel, and then Mexican — continued to occupy the Alamo until the Texas Revolution.

San Antonio and the Alamo played a critical role in the Texas Revolution. In December 1835, Ben Milam led Texian and Tejano volunteers against Mexican troops quartered in the city. After five days of house-to-house fighting, they forced General Martín Perfecto de Cós and his soldiers to surrender. The victorious volunteers then occupied the Alamo — already fortified prior to the battle by Cós' men — and strengthened its defenses.

On February 23, 1836, the arrival of General Antonio López de Santa Anna's army outside San Antonio nearly caught them by surprise. Undaunted, the Texians and Tejanos prepared to defend the Alamo together. The defenders held out for 13 days against Santa Anna's army. William B. Travis, the commander of the Alamo sent forth couriers carrying pleas for help to communities in Texas. On the eighth day of the siege, a band of 32 volunteers from Gonzales arrived, bringing the number of defenders to nearly two hundred. Legend holds that with the possibility of additional help fading, Colonel Travis drew a line on the ground and asked any man willing to stay and fight to step over — all except one did. As the defenders saw it, the Alamo was the key to the defense of Texas, and they were ready to give their lives rather than surrender their position to General Santa Anna. Among the Alamo's garrison were Jim Bowie, renowned knife fighter, and David Crockett, famed frontiersman and former congressman from Tennessee.

The final assault came before daybreak on the morning of March 6, 1836, as columns of Mexican soldiers emerged from the predawn darkness and headed for the Alamo's walls. Cannon and small arms fire from inside the Alamo beat back several attacks. Regrouping, the Mexicans scaled the walls and rushed into the compound. Once inside, they turned a captured cannon on the Long Barrack and church, blasting open the barricaded doors. The desperate struggle continued until the defenders were overwhelmed. By sunrise, the battle had ended and Santa Anna entered the Alamo compound to survey the scene of his victory.

While the facts surrounding the siege of the Alamo continue to be debated, there is no doubt about what the battle has come to symbolize. People worldwide continue to remember the Alamo as a heroic struggle against impossible odds — a place where men made the ultimate sacrifice for freedom. For this reason, the Alamo remains hallowed ground and the Shrine of Texas Liberty.
Brief Chronology of Events Concerning The Alamo
October 9, 1835 - General Martín Perfecto de Cos arrives at San Antonio de Béxar, bringing the number of Centralist forces in the town to approximately 1,200

October-November 1835 - Texian forces gather outside San Antonio de Béxar - Centralist troops fortify the town, including the Alamo

October 28, 1835 - Texians defeat Centralists in skirmish near Mission Concepcion

November 26, 1835 - Texians capture pack train bringing forage for Cos' cavalry

December 4, 1835 - Colonel Benjamin R. Milam rallies Texians for an assault on Cos' garrison in San Antonio de Béxar

December 5-10, 1835 - Battle of Béxar rages as Texians fight their way into town - Cos surrenders his army, which is then paroled

December 21, 1835 - Colonel James C. Neill receives orders to take command at San Antonio de Béxar - garrison consists of about 100 men

January 19, 1836 - Colonel James Bowie arrives to investigate the military situation for governor Henry Smith and General Sam Houston

February 2, 1836 - Bowie and Neill vow ". . . we will rather die in these ditches than give it up to the enemy." Lieutenant Colonel William B. Travis arrives with 30 men

February 8, 1836 - Former Congressman David Crockett arrives in San Antonio de Béxar with 12 volunteers

February 14, 1836 - Travis and Bowie agree to share command at San Antonio de Béxar after Colonel Neill received a temporary leave of absence

February 23, 1836 - Antonio López de Santa Anna and the Centralist forces arrive and the Siege of the Alamo begins

March 6, 1836 - The Alamo falls in a predawn assault

March-May 1836 - The Alamo reoccupied by Centralist forces

May-June1836 - Centralist forces are ordered out of Texas following Santa Anna's capture at the Battle of San Jacinto - the Alamo's fortifications are destroyed by the Centralist garrison

The Alamo Defenders

This list contains names of men who are known to have died in defense of the Alamo. For more information on the Alamo defenders, please click the defender's name and you will be sent to the
Handbook of Texas On-Line
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The Handbook of Texas On-Line
is a project of the Texas State Historical Association.  To become a member of TSHA or learn about their programs and publications, visit

Defender's Name


Abamillo, Juan TX

Allen, Robert VA

Andross, Miles DeForrest VT

Autry, Micajah NC

Badillo, Juan A. TX

Bailey, Peter James III KY

Baker, Isaac G. AR

Baker, William Charles M. MO

Ballentine, John J. PA

Ballantine, Richard W. Scotland

Baugh, John J. VA

Bayliss, Joseph TN

Blair, John TN

Blair, Samuel TN

Blazeby, William England

Bonham, James Butler SC

Bourne, Daniel England

Bowie, James KY

Bowman, Jesse B. TN

Brown, George England

Brown, James PA

Brown, Robert unknown

Buchanan, James AL

Burns, Samuel E. Ireland

Butler, George, D. MO

Cain, John PA

Campbell, Robert TN

Carey, William R. VA

Clark, Charles Henry MO

Clark, M.B. MS

Cloud, Daniel William KY

Cochran, Robert E. NH

Cottle, George Washington MO

Courtman, Henry Germany

Crawford, Lemuel SC

Crockett, David TN

Crossman, Robert PA

Cummings, David P. PA

Cunningham, Robert NY

Darst, Jacob C. KY

Davis, John KY

Day, Freeman H.K. unknown

Day, Jerry C. MO

Daymon, Squire TN

Dearduff, William TN

Dennison, Stephen England or Ireland

Despallier, Charles LA

Dewall, Lewis NY

Dickinson, Almeron TN

Dillard, John Henry TN

Dimpkins, James R. England

Duvalt, Andrew Ireland

Espalier, Carlos TX

Esparza, Gregorio TX

Evans, Robert Ireland

Evans, Samuel B. NY

Ewing, James L. TN

Faunterloy, William Keener KY

Fishbaugh, William unknown

Flanders, John MA

Floyd, Dolphin Ward NC

Forsyth, John Hubbard NY

Fuentes, Antonio TX

Fuqua, Galba AL

Garnett, William VA

Garrand, James W. LA

Garrett, James Girard TN

Garvin, John E. unknown

Gaston, John E. KY

George, James unknown

Goodrich, John C. VA

Grimes, Albert Calvin GA

Guerrero, José María TX

Gwynne, James C. England

Hannum, James PA

Harris, John KY

Harrison, Andrew Jackson TN

Harrison, William B OH

Hawkins, Joseph M. Ireland

Hays, John M. TN

Heiskell, Charles M. TN

Herndon, Patrick Henry VA

Hersee, William Daniel England

Holland, Tapley OH

Holloway, Samuel PA

Howell, William D. MA

Jackson, Thomas Ireland

Jackson, William Daniel KY

Jameson, Green B. KY

Jennings, Gordon C. CT

Jimenes (Ximenes), Damacio TX

Johnson, Lewis Wales

Johnson, William PA

Jones, John NY

Kellog, John Benjamin KY

Kenney, James VA

Kent, Andrew KY

Kerr, Joseph LA

Kimbell, George C. PA

King, William Philip TX

Lewis, William Irvine VA

Lightfoot, William J. VA

Lindley, Jonathan L. IL

Linn, William MA

Losoya, Toribio TX

Main, George Washington

Malone, William T. GA

Marshall, William TN

Martin, Albert RI

McCafferty, Edward unknown

McCoy, Jesse TN

McDowell, William PA

McGee, James Ireland

McGregor, John Scotland

McKinney, Robert TN

Melton, Eliel GA

Miller, Thomas R. TN

Mills, William TN

Millsaps, Isaac MS

Mitchell, Edwin T. unknown

Mitchell, Napoleon B. unknown

Mitchusson, Edward F. VA

Moore, Robert B. VA

Moore, Willis A. MS

Musselman, Robert OH

Nava, Andrés TX

Neggan, George SC

Nelson, Andrew M. TN

Nelson, Edward SC

Nelson, George SC

Northcross, James VA

Nowlan, James England

Pagan, George unknown

Parker, Christopher Adam unknown

Parks, William NC

Perry, Richardson TX

Pollard, Amos MA

Reynolds, John Purdy PA

Roberts, Thomas H. unknown

Robertson, James Waters TN

Robinson, Isaac Scotland

Rose, James M. OH

Rusk, Jackson J. Ireland

Rutherford, Joseph KY

Ryan, Isaac LA

Scurlock, Mial NC

Sewell, Marcus L. England

Shied, Manson GA

Simmons, Cleveland Kinlock SC

Smith, Andrew H.

Smith, Charles S. MD

Smith, Joshua G. NC

Smith, William H. unknown

Starr, Richard England

Stewart, James E. England

Stockton, Richard L. NJ

Summerlin, A. Spain TN

Summers, William E. TN

Sutherland, William DePriest unknown

Taylor, Edward TN

Taylor, George TN

Taylor, James TN

Taylor, William TN

Thomas, B. Archer M. KY

Thomas, Henry Germany

Thompson, Jesse G. AR

Thomson, John W. NC

Thruston, John, M. PA

Trammel, Burke Ireland

Travis, William Barret SC

Tumlinson, George W. MO

Tylee, James NY

Walker, Asa TN

Walker, Jacob TN

Ward, William B. Ireland

Warnell, Henry unknown

Washington, Joseph G. KY

Waters, Thomas England

Wells, William GA

White, Isaac AL or KY

White, Robert unknown

Williamson, Hiram James PA

Wills, William unknown

Wilson, David L. Scotland

Wilson, John PA

Wolf, Anthony unknown

Wright, Claiborne NC

Zanco, Charles Denmark

___?___, John a Black Freedman

Weather Conditions During The Siege and Battle
The following are extracts from the diaries of William F. Gray and Juan N. Almonte concerning the weather in Texas during late February and early March 1836. It becomes apparent that Walter Lord's description of the weather in A Time to Stand, an epic of the Alamo, was based on these accounts.
February 18
"It rained hard night, but this morning, like yesterday, was very foggy. Cleared off about 9 o'clock." Gray, p. 113, At San Felipe de Austin.
February 22
"This morning was clear and beautiful, the air mild, and all nature looks sweet and inviting." Gray, p. 117, Near San Felipe de Austin.
February 23
John Sutherland's horse slipped in the mud and threw him when he and John W. Smith rode out of town to investigate a report that Mexican troops were approaching San Antonio. Walter Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 94.
February 25
"Yesterday the weather was warm and cloudy, indicating rain. All the forenoon to-day we were met by a strong south breeze, blowing a drizzling rain directly in our faces. About noon the drizzle ceased, and it was so warm that I rode in my shirt sleeves. It was summer heat. At night the wind chopped suddenly round to the north, and there commenced what is familiarly called in this country a norther, by which us always understood a hard and cold blow from the north. It generally lasts for two or three days, and is sometimes so excessively cold that persons have been known to freeze to death in crossing the plains. Long observation has taught them to expect a norther between the 20th of February and 1st of March, and that generally closes the winter." Gray, p. 119, Near Washington-on-the-Brazos.
Drizzled in the morning, but the afternoon was hot and muggy. Lord, A Time to Stand, p.110
February 26
"This morning it was excessively cold for this southern region; yesterday it was summer heat. I put the thermometer out in the porch and it fell to thirty-five degrees. It being so cold, I did not start until near noon." Gray, p. 119, Near Washington-on-the-Brazos.
"The northern wind continued very strong; the thermometer fell to 39°, and during the rest of the day remained at 60°." Journal of Juan N. Almonte, p. 18, San Antonio de Béxar.
A cold, bleak day. Travis sent men to pull down the huts to the south for firewood.
Lord, A Time to Stand, p.114.
A bitter north wind. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 116

February 27
"The wind yesterday and to-day blew hard from the north, right in my face; a most uncomfortable ride." Gray, p. 120, Approaching Washington-on-the-Brazos.
"The northern wind was strong at day break, and continued all night. Thermometer at 39°." Almonte, p. 19, San Antonio de Béxar .
Norther still blowing. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 116.
A cold windy night. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 117.
February 28
"Cold and drizzling." Gray, p. 120, Near Washington-on-the-Brazos.
"The weather abated somewhat. Thermometer at 40° at 7 A. M.." Almonte, p. 19, San Antonio de Béxar.
Wind had died down but it was still cold and drizzling. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 117.
February 29
"A warm day, threatening rain from the south." Gray, p. 120, Washington-on-the-Brazos.
"The weather changed - thermometer at 55°; in the night it commenced blowing hard from the west." Almonte, p. 19, San Antonio de Béxar.
Warm and breezy. Walter Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 123
March 1
"Yesterday was a warm day, and at bed time I found it necessary to throw off some clothes. In the night the wind sprung up from the north and blew a gale, accompanied by lightning, thunder, rain, and hail, and it became very cold. In the morning the thermometer was down to 33 degrees, and everybody [was] shivering and exclaiming against the cold. The is the second regular norther that I have experienced." Gray, p. 121, Washington-on-the-Brazos.
"The wind subsided, but the weather continued cold - thermometer at 36° in the morning - day clear. Journal of Juan N. Almonte, p. 19 San Antonio de Béxar
The day dawned bitterly cold. Walter Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 128
March 2
"The morning clear and cold, but the cold somewhat moderated." Gray, p. 123, Washington-on-the-Brazos.
"Commenced clear and pleasant - thermometer 34° - no wind. Almonte, p. 19-20, San Antonio de Béxar.
March 3
"Morning clear and cold, but became more moderate as the day advanced." Gray, p. 124, Washington-on-the-Brazos.
"Commenced clear and pleasant, at 40°, without wind." Almonte, p. 20, San Antonio de Béxar.
March 4
"The day commenced windy, but not cold - thermometer 42°." Almonte, p. 20, San Antonio de Béxar.
March 5
"The day commenced very moderate - thermometer at 50° - weather clear." Almonte, p. 22, San Antonio de Béxar.
A clear, warm day. Lord, A Time to Stand, p. 146
March 6
"Beginning at one o'clock in the morning of the 6th, the columns were set in motion, and at three they silently advanced toward the river, which they crossed marching two abreast over some narrow wooden bridges. . . . The moon was up, but the density of the clouds that covered it allowed only an opaque light in our direction seeming to contribute to our designs. This half-light, the silence we kept, hardly interrupted by soft murmurs, the coolness of the morning air, the great quietude that seemed to prolong the hours, and the dangers we would soon have to face, all of this rendered our situation grave, . . . ." With Santa Anna in Texas, De La Peña, p. 46 Crisp Edition
March 7
"Commenced with a north wind." Almonte, p. 19-20, San Antonio de Béxar.
March 8
"Fine weather." Gray, p. 126 Washington-on-the Brazos.
Almonte, Juan Nepomuceno. "The Private Journal of Juan Nepomuceno Almonte."
Southwestern Historical Quarterly (July 1944): 10-32.
Gray, William F. From Virginia to Texas, 1835: Diary of Col. Wm. F. Gray.
Houston:The Fletcher Young Publishing Company, 1965.
Lord, Walter. A Time to Stand. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1961.
De La Peña, José Enrique. With Santa Anna in Texas: A Personal Narrative of
the Revolution.
Edited by James E. Crisp. College Station: Texas A&M Press,

The Myths

The story of the Alamo is known around the world. Like all legendary events, however, myths and misconceptions have sprung up that many people now take as fact. The following is a brief discussion of some of the inaccuracies that seem to be the most widely accepted.
· The winter of 1836 was one of the coldest in Texas history.
    The idea has somehow developed that 1836 was one of the coldest winters in Texas history. One fact that reinforces this notion is that the Mexican Army encountered a freak blizzard in route to Texas that began on the evening of February 13 and continued throughout the next day. The weather during this storm was severe enough to kill horses, mules, men and camp followers.1 The snowstorm, however, did not extend into Texas. Two observers in Texas in 1836, William Fairfax Gray and Colonel Juan Almonte, both kept records of the weather in their journals. [Click here to see their observation on the weather.] From their entries information can be gathered that reveals the weather at the time of the battle. A cold front arrived on the evening of February 25 that dropped the temperatures into the 30s. Prior to that, however, it had been "shirt sleeve" weather. It remained cold and rainy but warmed to nearly 60 degrees (F) on February 29. That night, a second cold front swept the region. The temperature gradually warmed over the next few days. It remained cool on March 6, but by March 8 Gray proclaimed "Fine weather." Any Texan should recognize this as a description of typical Texas weather.
· The Battle of the Alamo bought time for Sam Houston to build his army.

The notion that the men of the Alamo died buying time for Sam Houston to build an army is well-entrenched in Alamo lore, but a review of Houston's activities shows it to be unfounded. On November 12, 1835, the Consultation (the provisional government of Texas) appointed Sam Houston Commanding-General of the Texas Army. His authority, however, extended over the regular army, leaving him unable to legally issue orders to the volunteers already in the field.2 Houston dispatched recruiters to raise the regular army as well as agents to acquire arms, uniforms, and other supplies. With no troops to command, Houston received a furlough on January 28 in order to take care of personal business. He spent part of his leave conducting negotiations with the Cherokee Indians.3 With a treaty successfully concluded, Houston rode to Washington-on-the-Brazos, where he served as a delegate to the constitutional convention, remaining there until March 6.4 During his stay, the new government reconfirmed his appointment as commanding-general of the Texas Army, giving him control over all troops - regulars and volunteers. Houston arrived at Gonzales on March 11 to lead a relief expedition to San Antonio but by then the Alamo had already fallen. Thus, during the siege Houston was not building an army but engaged in other important business.
· The men at the Alamo died not knowing that Texas had declared its independence.
    It is true that the Alamo garrison most likely died unaware that the delegates at the constitutional convention at Washington-on-the-Brazos had adopted a Declaration of Independence on March 2, 1836. Nevertheless, the Alamo garrison was in favor of independence and fully expected the delegates to secede from Mexico. The garrison had even sent its own delegates to the convention with instructions to vote for independence. Travis addressed the issue of independence in a letter sent from the Alamo on March 3, 1836:
    "Let the Convention go on and make a declaration of independence, and we will then understand, and the world will understand, what we are fighting for. If independence is not declared, I shall lay down my arms, and so will the men under my command." Thus, Texas' Declaration of Independence would not have surprised them - it was what they desired and expected.5
· There were no survivors.
    "Thermopylae had her messenger of defeat; the Alamo had none."6 This famous quote conveys the notion that none survived the Battle of the Alamo. It is true that nearly all of the Texans under arms inside the fort were killed in the March 6, 1836, attack. However, nearly twenty women and children, who experienced the twelve days of siege leading to the final assault, were spared and allowed to return to their homes. The survivors also included Joe, the slave of William B. Travis. The best known Alamo survivor, Susanna Dickinson, was sent to Gonzales by Santa Anna with a warning to the Texans that the same fate awaited them if they continued their revolt.7 (For more information about the Survivors, please see the FAQs page of this web site)  
· The only Texans who rallied to the aid of the Alamo were 32 men from Gonzales.
    One question frequently asked about the Battle of the Alamo is why did not more Texans answer Travis' poignant pleas for help. The arrival of the Gonzales Ranging Company on the morning of March 1, 1836, is the only documented instance of assistance.8 Much scorn has been heaped on Colonel James W. Fannin, whose 400-man battalion remained at Goliad, only 100 miles away. Fannin's detractors ignore the fact that he also faced an advancing Mexican column and could not leave his post unguarded. Travis' letters were effective in bringing recruits to the field. More than 200 volunteers had gathered at Gonzales in preparation to march to the Alamo's relief when news of its fall reached the town.9 It was this collection of men that formed the nucleus of Sam Houston's army that eventually defeated Santa Anna at San Jacinto on April 21, 1836.10
· The men of the Alamo could have left at any time because they were volunteers.
    Although the majority of the Alamo's garrison was composed of volunteers, they were volunteers in the 19th century military sense of the word. These men had signed an oath of allegiance to the Provisional Government of Texas, declaring
    "I will serve her honestly and faithfully against all her enemies and opposer whatsoever, and observe and obey the orders of the Governor of Texas, the orders and decrees of the present and future authorities and the orders of the officers appointed over me according to the rules and regulations for the government of Texas."11 Citizen-soldiers, these men were bound to defend any post they were assigned and were not free to leave on their own.

· William B. Travis was disliked by the garrison.
    Travis fares rather poorly in the popular media, usually portrayed as a pompous martinet with few friends. In reality, Travis was outgoing, gregarious and respected by his peers.12 One fact that has helped create the notion that the men of the Alamo disliked Travis was the volunteers' refusal to take orders from him, electing James Bowie as their leader instead.13 The election of Bowie had more to do with the ongoing philosophical dispute between regulars and volunteers than it did the garrison's opinion of Travis.14 The volunteers simply did not want to take orders from a regular officer, even someone they respected such as Lieutenant Colonel William B. Travis of the Texas Army.
· The Battle of the Alamo would not have taken place had the garrison followed Sam Houston's orders to blow up the fort and leave San Antonio.
On January 17, 1836, Houston wrote Governor Henry Smith that he had "ordered the fortifications in the town of Bexar to be demolished, and if you should think well of it [italics added for emphasis], I will remove all the cannon and other munitions of war to Gonzales and Copano, blow up the Alamo, and abandon the place, as it will be impossible to keep up the Station with volunteers,
     . . . ."15
Thus, Houston requested permission to give the order to destroy the Alamo - permission that Governor Smith did not grant. The lack of horses and mules meant that the cannon, ammunition, and other supplies could not have been removed even if the governor had agreed with Houston's plan.16 On February 2, 1836, Bowie expressed the following view to Governor Henry Smith:
    "The Salvation of Texas depends in great measure in keeping Bejar out of the hands of the enemy. It serves as the frontier picquet guard . . . . Col. Neill & Myself have come to the solemn resolution that we will rather die in these ditches than give it up to the enemy."17
1José Enrique de la Peña, With Santa Anna in Texas (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1997), 26-29; Vicente Filisola, Memoirs for the History of the War in Texas (2 vols.; Austin: Eakin Press, 1987), 2:157-159.Back
2Henry W. Barton, "The Problem of Command in the Army of the Republic of Texas," Southwestern Historical Quarterly (January 1959), 300.Back
3John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 4:176, 260-261.Back
4William Fairfax Gray, From Virginia to Texas, 1835: Diary of Col. Wm. F. Gray (Houston: Fletcher Young Publishing Co., 1965), 125. For Houston's activities from January 28, 1836, to March 11, 1836, see Llerena B. Friend, Sam Houston: The Great Designer (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985), 66-68.Back
5John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 4:128, 160, 263-265, 324-325, 504-505. Béxar elected four delegates: Lorenzo de Zavala, José Francisco Ruiz, José Antonio Navarro, and Juan Seguin. On February 1, 1836, the Alamo garrison elected two delegates of their own: Jesse B. Badgett and Samuel Maverick. Maverick did not leave the Alamo until March 2, 1836.Back
6John H. Jenkins, "Notes And Documents: The Thermopylae Quotation," Southwestern Historical Quarterly (October 1990), 299-304. Attributed to Edward Burleson, historians believe the quote was supplied to him for a speech as he had little formal education and would have most likely been unaware of this ancient battle.Back
7See  Were there survivors at the Alamo?Back
8John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 4:475, 502, 504; Alan Huffines, Blood of Noble Men: The Alamo Siege & Battle(Austin: Eakin Press, 1999), 103.Back.
9John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 5:22-23.Back
10John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 5:69.Back
11John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 4:11, 13-14; Eugene C. Barker, "The Texas Revolutionary Army," The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association (April 1906), 227-261. For a discussion of volunteers within the American military, see Richard B. Winders, Mr. Polk's Army: The American Military Experience in the Mexican War (College Station: Texas A & M Press, 1997), Chapter 5: The Volunteers.Back
12For a current and objective biography of Travis, see Willaim C. Davis, Three Roads to the Alamo (New York: HarperCollins, 1998).Back
13John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 4:320, 327-328, 339.Back
14See Richard B. Winders, Mr. Polk's Army: The American Military Experience in the Mexican War (College Station: Texas A & M Press, 1997), Chapters 4 & 5; John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 3:306-308.Back
15John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 4:46.Back
16John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 4:127, 424-425.Back
17John H. Jenkins, Papers of The Texas Revolution (10 vols.; Austin: Presidial Press, 1973), 4:236-238.Back

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